How has your upbringing/schooling shaped how you “read the world?” What biases and lenses do you bring to the classroom? How might we unlearn / work against these biases?
Growing up in England has had an impact on how I “read the world”. The classic’s like Dickens, Hardy, and Chaucer were all written by white-middle aged men depicting their perspective on the world. Although their work was eloquent, and powerful, they did see the world through their own privileged lenses, which didn’t relate to me. I was a white girl; born hundreds of years later and didn’t understand the world the authors had written about. I also found it difficult and frustrating reading Bronte and Austin, the female characters were caught up in Britain’s claustrophobic class society which restrained them and held them back.
Yes, I have biases, but understanding this is the first step to overcoming them. Even as a young child I disliked the privilege boys were given just because of their gender. I have always thought that everyone should be treated fairly as we all have our gifts, and gender is irrelevant. I also disliked the class system as we should be judged on our merits, not by where we went to school or how much money you have.
The work I’ve done in my ECE 325 class on anti-bias education, has been difficult and yet rewarding. This class has made me realize I’m human just like everyone else, and because of this I have biases I need to work on. Classes at the university challenge my ‘common sense’ and help me to open my heart, acknowledge my biases, and overcome my negative emotions. I have grown as an individual over the last two years; I’m kinder, more giving, more forgiving with others and myself.
Our readings at the University of Regina are powerful, as they show me different perspectives; they challenge me, make me question, and analyse myself. The internal conversations anti-bias literature stimulates is tough yet worthwhile. This literature pushes me forward to a new level of understanding and makes me more open and accepting of everyone around me.
Which “single stories” were present in your own schooling? Whose truth mattered?
We all have biases as they are part of our unconscious; biases help to shape the way we see the world. We need to look at our biases and see what truth lies buried. We need to examine the lenses we see through and realize there is danger in seeing things with a “single story”. The “single story” shows one aspect of the truth and we need to challenge it.
The major story present when I was growing up was that boys were better than girls. Boys were smarter, faster, and stronger, and always got what they wanted. As a girl I had to accept the fact, that boys were superior, it was the way of the world; this truth was in my home, family, and at school. I never liked this “single story” and always fought against it.
The truth that matters is the truth in my heart. I am now learning different views on my life’s volume of stories and see the vastness and inter-connectivity of people, places, and environment. I knew I was strong, brave, and bold and with a deeper understanding of myself I can bring a richness to others and help unlock their “single stories”.
1. At the beginning of the reading, Leroy Little Bear (2000) states that colonialism “tries to maintain a singular social order by means of force and law, suppressing the diversity of human worldviews. … Typically, this proposition creates oppression and discrimination” (p. 77). Think back on your experiences of the teaching and learning of mathematics — were there aspects of it that were oppressive and/or discriminating for you or other students?
When I went to school there was only one way of solving math problems. I had to learn everything by route and memorization. Math was “linear, static, and objective” (Bear, 2000, p. 84). I didn’t understand the relationships of numbers and found math to be a huge wall that was too big to climb. I hated learning my times tables. My teacher would make us stand while we individually recited our tables, and those who were correct got to sit down, the humiliation and shame I felt being one of the last students to sit stays with me today.
The worst teacher I ever had was my Grade 7 math teacher. I didn’t learn a thing the whole year as I was in his class. I lived in a state of constant fear during this year at school. The teacher’s punishments for incorrect answers were: wearing a large egg box on your head tied with pink ribbons or placing our hands on “Fred” the cactus, as he pushed our hands into the spikes. I just remember praying throughout the class, ‘please don’t pick me’.
These are only two examples of how math was used to manipulate, control, and oppression me. I’m sure everyone has a story or two to tell about their personal math horrors. Our math teachers have used their subject to keep us silent and scared. This needs to stop!
Math is a beautiful subject, with intricate connections and relationships. We need to teach the dynamics of math, and the relevance it plays in our everyday lives to appreciate and marvel at it. Math is a subject to be embraced not feared.
2. After reading Poirier’s article: Teaching mathematics and the Inuit Community, identify at least three ways in which Inuit mathematics challenge Eurocentric ideas about the purposes mathematics and the way we learn it.
The way the Inuit approach mathematics is completely different from Eurocentric mathematical ideas. “Different cultures have developed different mathematical tools according to their needs and their environment, and the Inuit community is no exception” (Poirier, 2007, p. 54). The Inuit have developed a mathematical system that aides their survival; they live in an environment that is completely different to ours, their mathematical system is different too. The Inuit people are closely attuned to nature, and use nature as their guide, they don’t rely on Eurocentric abstract ideas and logic for survival.
The Inuit use a base 20 numerical system compared to our base 10 system. Children from kindergarten to Grade 3 are taught in their native language, Inuktitut, before learning about math in French or English. I admire how the Inuit insist on keeping their language in tact during their children’s formative years but realize Grade 3 would be a difficult year for the students as they have to learn a second language and strange math.
“Inuit children develop spatial representations that are different from those of children who live in a city like Montreal” (Poirier, 2007, p. 55). It’s a shame that Inuit children have to learn both types of thinking and are judged by our Eurocentric rules. Their spatial representations, ensure survival and life in a harsh environment, and shouldn’t be compared to others who live in completely different environments.
Bear, L. L. (2000). Jagged worldviews colliding. In M. Batiste (Ed.), Reclaiming Indigenous voice and vision (pp.77-85). UBC Press.
Poirier, L. (2007). Teaching mathematics and the Inuit community, Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 7(1), p. 53-67.
What is the purpose of teaching Treaty Ed (specifically) or First Nations, Metis, and Inuit (FNMI) Content and Perspectives (generally) where there are few or no First Nations, Metis, Inuit peoples?
It’s important for all of us to understand the people, place, history, and culture of the people we live with. The only way we can understand First Nations peoples is know them. As a society Canada hasn’t wanted to learn anything about Aboriginal ways, customs, and traditions; Canada has treated First Nation people with disrespect and attempted genocide. The only way to move forward is with mutual respect and understanding.
Understanding comes from shared respect, an open mind, and a willingness to learn about each other. Learning about Aboriginal people isn’t just about learning about them but understanding that Canada’s history is “our story: the one about commons, what was shared and what was lost” (Chambers, p. 30). We all have a role in changing the wrongs of the past and creating a better society for everyone. We shouldn’t have guilt of our ancestor’s deeds, as their behavior is part of our history, but we do have the power to control ourselves and change the present. Each one of us needs to empower ourselves with knowledge; to ensure the wrongs of the past are not repeated and have an attitude of kindness and respect for a new future.
That respectful future begins with learning about First Nations peoples, whether there are Indigenous students in class or not. Learning respect gives us an appreciation for Aboriginal culture and customs. First Nations people are not forced to stay on reserves anymore, and we need to acknowledge who they are and respect them as people. For example, standing at the bus stop during our winter storm, I had an interesting conversation with an Indigenous man. He was from the Northwest Territories and we talked about the harshness of the weather there compared to here. He talked about his experiences when visiting Inuit friends and describe the traditional Inuit way of life. Both of us marveled at their strength and fortitude for living in the North. This was an interesting conversation for us both.
What does it mean for your understanding of curriculum that “We are all treaty people?”
To be treaty people means that we all come together with mutual respect and encourage everyone’s successes no-matter what our skin colour. Those of us who are immigrants or are from settler ancestors live in a country where we reap the rewards of lands that were negotiated through treaty. We benefit from history, and we need to understand it’s time to put our prejudice aside and work together. We need to be more aware of the environment and First Nations attachment to the land as well as our attachment to it. First Nations people want to protect the land and its welfare, as they understand the importance of clean waters and healthy land. We too as treaty people need to take greater care of the land we live on; healthy land equals healthy people.
It’s important for everyone to understand that we live in Canada together, what one person does has ramifications for others. We need to treat our First Nations brothers and sisters with love, care, and kindness. Being treaty people means we are all related and need to come together as a family unit, rather than squabbling over egocentric greed.
Chambers. C. “We Are All Treaty People”. Referred from https://ecs210.wikispaces.com/file/view/We+are+all+treaty+people.pdf
The article suggests that a “critical pedagogy of place” aims to:
(a) identify, recover, and create material spaces and places that teach us how to live well in our total environments (reinhabitation); and (b) identify and change ways of thinking that injure and exploit other people and places (decolonization) (p.74)
1. List some of the ways that you see reinhabitation and decolonization happening throughout the narrative.
Reinhabitation within the article
-For the Mushkegowuk people they need to know and understand their connection to land, as the article states, “connection to nature is important to children’s intellectual, emotional, social, physical and spiritual development” (p70).
-The Elders and youth went on a river field trip. The youth learned the importance of traditional ways, and how these traditional ways become an integral part of the people.
-The river is part of the people and a living connection for family now, and those who have passed on; they are buried in different areas along the river.
-The river and its inhabitants teach the youth many lessons; frogs indicate when the water is clean to drink, birds foretell a change in weather, and moose understand the Mushkegowuk’s need for food.
-The youth learn how to live off the river, and learn about key historical/traditional sites on the river trip. They explore their history, language, issues of governance, and land management.
-The youth created an audio documentary to help record all that they learned; they captured the wisdom of the elders, and immortalized their teachings.
-It was important for the Elders to teach and “restablish among the youth a sense of connection to land, culture and life” (p76).
-The Elders taught the traditional names of places, and rewrote maps reintroducing land names that have been forgotten. The youth soon leaned that every curve in the river had its own name.
-As the young people performed activities Cree words were used to describe what they were doing in this way, the youth leaned new vocabulary by physically doing the tasks. They were learning by imprinting language with actions. It’s important for the younger generations to understand and “form a linguistic connection to traditional territory” (p78).
Decolonization throughout the article
-The article states that decolonization is not just “rejecting and transforming dominant ideas” (Bowers 2001), we also need to change ways of thinking that don’t hurt people or places.
-The whole point of Elders teaching Ways of Knowing to the youth was a form of decolonization, and they taught the importance of traditional ways.
-Colonial thinking is based on money, wealth, and owning things, whereas Indigenous ways focus on nature and respect. It is important for youth to value the old ways, therefore, when the mining companies come into the communities and want to pillage the land for resources the youth need to know the full ramifications of what mining will do to the land and their way of life.
How might you adapt these ideas to considering place in your own subject areas and teaching?
-The place we live teaches and shapes us.
-We as teachers bring our own lessons from the land where we grew up, as do our students. It’s important to respect all lessons taught from the land, and come together in community to learn from each other.
-No-matter where our students are from in the world, they all have unique lessons taught by the land. We need to have welcoming classrooms for them to freely teach the lessons they have learned.
-There needs to be involvement from community members in the classroom, who respect, wonder, and love the land.
-There are inherent biases towards First Nations Peoples in our province, and we need to learn, understand, and respect their history and traditions.
-Elders need to be invited into the classroom to tell stories about the land, rivers, animals, and plants.
-More classes should take place outside; use nature as a teacher.
-Students should be involved in learning about the world around them, nature is key to everything, science, math, art, language, and music/sound.
-It’s important for students to become physically involved with their world, and have pride in what they accomplish.
-I want to have a worm box in my classroom, to teach about the soil, how worms recycle our waste food, and how important they are. Everything is equally important in our world and needs to be respected. If we don’t value nature, we don’t know the full importance of it; even mosquito’s are important as they are food for birds and dragonflies, just because we don’t like them doesn’t mean that they aren’t any more valid than we are.
Restoule., J-P., Gruner. S., Metatawabin. E. (2013). Learning from Place: A Return to Traditional Mushkegowuk Ways of Knowing. Canadian Journal of Education. 36, 2 pp. 68-86 Referenced from https://ecs210.wikispaces.com/file/view/RestouleEtAl_2013_Learning%20from%20place.pdf/597510552/RestouleEtAl_2013_Learning%20from%20place.pdf
What examples of citizenship education do you remember from your K-12 schooling?
My teachers focused on personal responsive citizenship. There was a focus on picking up litter to make the community look good. The laws and rules were emphasized, and we had to obey school rules, or there would be consequences. Although recycling as we know it today didn’t exist when I was at school, I was always fascinated that the left-overs from school lunch were left outside the kitchen doors for the local pig farmers. This was my first sign of recycling.
What type of citizenship were the focus.
Personal responsive citizenship was the focus. I grew up in a different country and in a different era, where class was important and if you were deemed working class participation citizenship would be out of the question. Thinking, organizing, and running local government was meant for the middle classes or above. It was more important for the citizen to focus on themselves and understand what they could do to help the local community, rather than think higher ‘above their station’.
Explore what this approach to the curriculum made possible in regard to citizenship?
The personal responsible citizenship approach allows students to contribute to the community in a worthwhile way. It shows the importance of caring and sharing for others, and promotes well being for everyone. Students learn to respect others and understand that people have different lifestyles and shouldn’t be judged. Good citizens help when needed. This approach also helps to build honesty integrity, self discipline and hard work in citizens.
Explore what this approach to the curriculum made impossible in regards to citizenship?
When emphasis is given to personally responsible citizenship, many areas are lost. Students don’t understand the whole picture of society and they don’t question the root of the problem. Critical thinking is not encouraged. Students are not encouraged to question, and don’t understand others perspectives and arguments. Society as a whole doesn’t grow and move forward. Each person lives in a good community but society doesn’t progress; changes are not made, and social movements don’t progress forwards. It’s important for students to be taught about politics and “familiarize themselves with different perspectives” (Westheimer, 2017), so that they understand others arguments, think critically about subjects and have an understanding of our society.
Joel Westheimer: “What kind of citizen? Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9WF4uVcrlU
How do you think school curriculum is developed?
I think teachers, administrators, phycologists, and other educational experts, brain storm collectively to come up with a curriculum that will best meet all needs of society and what children are capable of at each specific age range.
How are school curriculum developed and implemented?
Everyone has an opinion on curriculum and everyone is more than eager to share their views. It seems that society and all it’s interconnected parts have a part to play when developing curriculum; it’s a political decision that incorporates schools, post education, interest groups, and at times the voice of the public.
But at the center of everything is the teacher. The curriculum may say one thing, but the teacher may teach in their predetermined style. It’s important to get everyone on board, focused and geared in the same direction for students to learn relevant information in a predetermined format.
What new information/perspectives does this reading provide about the development and implementation of school curriculum?
I’m surprised that everyone has a vested interest in the curriculum. It seems the loudest and most powerful voices are the ones that are heard which isn’t necessarily the best way to go. The special interest groups who lobby the government can also be a powerful force, which isn’t good. Everyone seems to have something to gain from putting their spin onto the curriculum, while the teachers and students are just pawns in the societal game.
Is there anything that surprises you or maybe that concerns you?
I’m surprised that it’s generally middle aged, white, males that are making all the decisions. Although this is where the power in our society lays, women have just as much invested in their children’s education as do the men, and their voices are easily ignored. We need to include different perspectives in the curriculum creation process and invite First Nations elders, and leaders from other ethnic groups to be at the decision table. The curriculum affects their children too.
What does it mean to be a “good” student according to the commonsense?
A “good” student is someone who comes to class with a certain amount of knowledge and at the end of they year they know more. This student listens well, follows instructions, does what it expected of them. They comply to classroom norms and follow social norms. They don’t challenge the teacher or themselves, but accept everything that is presented. This student will end up being a good ‘product’, as they will conform and assimilate into being a functional member of society.
The “good” student is what society hopes for. But I suggest, every student is a “good student”. Every child comes to class with their own knowledge and understanding of the world, and when they share and contribute to the class, everyone gains greater insight. The sharing of oneself and respect of others is the foundation of learning; in this environment the students are engaged and contribute to their own education.
Which students are privileged by this definition of the good student?
The privileged ‘good students’ are the ones that the society deems most important. In Canada our society privileges white people, with all other cultures in the middle except for our Indigenous people; they are at the bottom of the hierarchy.
Privileged students can sit still, listen, follow instructions and don’t disrupt the class. These students make the teachers life easier, and are less demanding. Again, these students know and understand societal norms and comply with them. The students who don’t know our culture, are at a disadvantage, as are those with different skin tones.
What is made impossible to see/understand/believe because of these commonsense ideas?
With these commonsense ideas oppression is impossible to see. The privileged people think that they don’t oppress anyone, and they lead good, honest, happy lives. The reality of commonsense is invisible to the majority. Oppression happens, and certain sectors of society are excluded.
We need to start teaching our students to challenge the norms that they see everyday. Challenging and criticizing our normative narratives is difficult and can be an emotional process. We need to feel uncomfortable, as this helps to view things from different perspectives. Being a societal robot and not questioning what’s really going on, doesn’t help society to change and evolve. Just looking at gender, race, and sexual orientation, in the classroom is limiting, these ideas need to be expanded and all areas of society needs critical examination.
Kumashiro, Kevin. (2010), Against Common Sense. Routledge. Retrieved 27 January 2018, from http://www.myilibrary.com?ID=107087
The greatest sign of a success for a teacher…is to be able to say, “The children are now working as if I did not exist.”
- Maria Montessori
This quote is awesome. It says that the teacher has empowered her students. Maria Montessori allowed children to learn through practical play. In doing so, she allowed the students to chose what they wanted to learn and explore what interests them. Through her unique teaching style she gives children the knowledge and understanding to tackle problems with confidence and skill. The students use their own logic and reasoning to find answers to their questions. The students explore and discover knowledge at deeper levels while the teacher acts as a guide.
The students are self confident, and eager to accept the challenge of learning new concepts. They are encouraged to use their own initiative and develop their abilities. The children are on the road of discovery and are directing their own learning. The students have the power and control of their own educational destiny. They learn what they need to learn through practical play.
This quote makes it possible for children to be imaginative and creative. They are allowed to follow areas of their own interests and think critically. They aren’t robots and learning by route, instead they use their own minds and ideas to solve problems.
On the negative side, student work would be more difficult to mark and grade. The consistency of the learning journey isn’t there as each student is learning at their own rate rather than a predetermined level.
This quote takes the curriculum which I tend to think of as a dull and boring document, and breathes life and vibrancy into it. Montessori’s approach makes the curriculum a dynamic tool allowing the teacher and the students to be creative.
Her students would love to come to school, as her classroom would be a place of ideas and revelations. It would be a fun place. I want to be like this teacher.
Explain the ways in which you may have experienced the Tyler rationale in your own schooling.
The Tyler rationale views education as a process that focuses on curriculum goals. These goals are achieved through acquiring new skills in which students can demonstrate knowledge, i.e. exams. It was considered important for students to learn and change behaviours to become smarter. To learn new behaviours, students had to learn through experience and by doing. Teachers needed to control the learning experience and organize materials to ensure students learned effectively. The teacher had evaluation tools such as exams to test if the student had reached the predetermined goals of the curriculum.
All my early and middle education was build on Tyler’s rationale. My teachers would break down subjects into small pieces and then build on that knowledge. All learning was by route. Exams were important as they showed how successful I was in a given subject. There was no inquiry learning, and exploration; creativity wasn’t encouraged. School was not dynamic and fun; it was boring and dull.
What are the major limitations of the Tyler rationale?
The Tyler rationale doesn’t allow the student to have their own voice to say how they are being shaped and molded. Each person has different learning styles and Tyler’s interpretation of the curriculum doesn’t allow for that. His rationale doesn’t look at the person and their specific needs, the individual is left out of the equation and Tyler’s rationale is sterile. There are no values given for positive or negative attributes “kind/unkind, moral/immoral, responsible/irresponsible” (Schrio, p. 78), these attributes are what makes us who we are, and unique.
What does Tyler’s rationale make impossible?
Tyler’s rationale makes creativity impossible. Students aren’t allowed to have self expression and follow areas of self interest. Students imaginations are not stimulated and allowed to be expressed, which is an important part of education.
What are some potential benefits?
Tyler’s rationale does have benefits. Students have the skills to be productive within society, as the schooling system has taught them necessary skills for success. Education is standardized, and all students have the same knowledge base.
What is made possible?
Everyone conforms to societal norms as all individuals have the same educational background; society as a whole moves forward as a collective unit.
Schiro, M. (2013). Curriculum theory: Conflicts visions and enduring concerns. (second Ed). SAGE.